WHAT IS BAUHAUS?
The Sofa you are sitting on? Your room interior? The screen from which you are reading this article? They are all the result of a significant current in design, perhaps even the most significant of the 20th century - the Bauhaus.
Against the background of the turbulent historical period in which the Bauhaus was founded, its revolutionary character and the dramatic upheavals it went through are predictable and understandable. Only 14 years the Bauhaus school operated until it was closed by the Nazis, but their immense influence changed the way each of us perceives architecture, art, and design to this day.
THE BIRTH OF THE BAUHAUS STYLE
The year is 1919. Yes, exactly 100 years ago. Germany collects its fragments and licks the wounds of the First World War.
The world at the height of industrial development discovers the power of electricity and begins to harness it to industry. As a result, the daily life of the common man - changes from end to end.
The wave of socialism continues to wash over society. Demonstrations, protests, and a huge human influx of millions of workers are flooding the cities with demand for housing and employment.
From the capital of the then emergency government, Weimar comes the call for effective and rapid rehabilitation solutions for the masses. Architect Walter Gropius is appointed by the German government to establish an institute that will help rehabilitate the country, socially and culturally.
AN INNOVATIVE DESIGN SCHOOL
Gropius is the founder of the Bauhaus - an innovative school in its approach to design.
He encourages his students to adopt new technological inventions and to combine art and craftsmanship, to succeed in a modern environment, and to effectively serve the masses.
Despite its short period of operation, its impact has been long-term, and it is this that has defined everything obvious to us in modern design.
RESHAPE THE WORLD
The turn of the last century was an era of upheaval. Drastic changes in all disciplines of life forced the person to adapt or cease. Many committed suicide and others - lost their sanity. The one who nevertheless moved on successfully was the one who knew how to embrace the innovation and harness it to make it - sounds familiar?…
With the end of World War I, the situation only got worse. The atmosphere was saturated with despair on the one hand and disillusionment on the other. There was an urgent need to reshape the world, literally.
THE GOOD NEWS: ADOPT TECHNOLOGY, BLUR BOUNDARIES
To rebuild Germany, quickly, and with a minimum budget, the Bauhaus encouraged its students to harness the capabilities of technology, rather than oppose them. Its founders believed that mass-produced products should be designed to be efficient, useful, and accessible to the working class, but also aesthetic in appearance. In this way, they dreamed of creating a new and classless social world. The challenge was to design a suitable aesthetic language for technology.
While the Bauhaus school believed that the building itself was the pinnacle of design (hence its tremendous influence on architecture), its students specialized as part of their education, in all design disciplines - in art, design, typography, and handicrafts.
They aspired to create what is called in German 'Gazmet Art Work' (in case you were wondering, so to speak) in a simple translation: a total work of art. It refers to the synthesis between different arts, design disciplines, and the creation of a multidisciplinary art experience.
Starting from the basics - The Bowes study syllabus was constructed and organized in its characteristic constructivism, and reflected the theory, in practice.
It starts with a solid understanding of the basics of design - composition, the theory of color, and the weight of handicrafts, and gradually builds on the other areas of interest and knowledge.
The artist's method and the apprentice - Bauhaus, in German - a workers' hut. At every construction site in Germany of that period, a small pavilion was located. On rainy days the artisans would work inside it on manufacturing and designing various elements for the structure on which they were working. They shared the knowledge, in the artist and apprentice method.
True to this principle, the Bauhaus curriculum combined theory with practice, with understanding and experiencing and practicing in the field.
Blurring classes between artist and artist - Because they aspired to shatter the class differences between the artist and the artist, the courses at the Bauhaus school taught to ignore individualism, and instead, focus on productivity, efficiency, and effectiveness of the design.
It was an institution where the secrets of design, as well as the theories and beliefs of its creators, were learned directly from the best masters. The Bauhaus instructors were at the highest level of skill and understanding in every genre of art, design, and craft. Each of them brought his unique interpretation of the salient values of the establishment.
PHILOSOPHY: A FORM DERIVES FROM A FUNCTION
The Bauhaus philosophy espoused functionalism. According to her, every form derives from a function. Every design must, first of all, give an effective answer to a practical and useful need.
Many attributes to Bauhaus (mistakenly) the famous phrase Form Follows Function. This term was coined in 1896 by American architect Louis Sullivan, the inventor of skyscrapers. This principle reinforced the basic belief on which the Bauhaus theory (and then the entire international style) relied, which sought to strip every design down to its most fundamental form.
The Bauhaus called for a renunciation of the ornate Prussian style ("decoration is a crime"), to emphasize the simple man and his daily needs at the center of cultural ideology.
This is what it looks like - The Bauhaus style is characterized by clean and simple lines - straight or diagonal, vertical or balanced. Its hallmarks are basic geometric shapes that simplify the intricate shape, and sun-serif typography breaks grids and conventions. The undisputed Bauhaus colors are: black, white, red, yellow, and blue.
In product design, the pursuit of minimalism is expressed, not only in form but also in material.
Using these elements made his products easy and simple to mass-produce.
NAZI PERSECUTION AND THE SPREAD OF INTERNATIONAL STYLE
The Bauhaus represented left-wing liberalism in Germany. As such, he was persecuted to the point of exile with the rise of the right and was forced to migrate from Weimar to Dessau in 1924. Even his stay there did not last long. In the spring of 1932, the Nazis gained control of the Dessau municipality, and the school was exiled to an abandoned factory in Berlin, where it survived for several months until its complete closure when the Nazis came to power in 1933.
The Nazis treated the Bauhaus as dangerous communists. They detested their international approach, which shunned traditional Germanism, and demanded that Miss van de Rohe - the school's third and final director - fire his many Jewish teachers and appoint Nazi teachers.
Miss van der Rohe closed the doors of the institution and fled to the United States. Like him, many other teachers were persecuted and fled Germany, including Jewish architects who immigrated to Israel. A concentration of key figures settled in the United States. -20.
This is how Bauhaus design theory became widespread, becoming the international style that dominated the world between the 1930s and 1960s. A style that has given us the modern living environment we take for granted.
For years, the Bauhaus was a kind of kosher seal for its teachers and students, who were persecuted by the Nazis for their liberalism or Judaism. Several Bauhaus students and teachers who did not leave Germany on time were murdered in Auschwitz. Among them, Otti Berger, textile artist, painter and bookbinder Friedel Dicker-Brandeis, weaver Hedwig Dolberg-Arnheim, and metal artist Lotte exploits.
Only about a decade ago, other voices began to be heard as well. Bauhaus graduates who worked under the Nazis in World War II - who forcibly who willingly, we will never know.
THE CRADLE OF MODERNISM AND MINIMALISM
The Bauhaus is one of the important milestones in the history of modernism and minimalism, in which the architect Miss van der Rohe coined the immortal slogan "less is more".
If all this suspiciously reminds you of Mondrian's works and theories, you are not wrong. The de-style movement founded two years before the Bauhaus (1917) by the painters Fiat Mondrian and Theo van Duesberg, had a significant influence on the Bauhaus, and on the works of the architects who managed it - Gropius and Miss van Rohe - the fathers of modernist architecture.
Van Doesburg himself lectured at the Bauhaus from 1921 to 1923, sometimes working collaboratively with other artists who taught at the institution, and ideas flowed in a two-way way between them.
MESSAGE FOR THE FUTURE: FROM STEM EXCITING
A poster designed in honor of the 100th anniversary of the Bauhaus
Many recognize the parallel between the energies of the early 20th century and today. In the worlds of art, design, and manual craftsmanship, the need is felt even more - to recalculate a path.
Ethical and practical issues arise again on how to successfully create a design for a new world. A design that combines man and machine, connects art and craftsmanship, and creates a multidisciplinary synthesis between the fields of design to fulfill a work that is 'Gazamt Art Work'.
The 100th-anniversary celebrations for the Bauhaus are not purely symbolic, they play for all of us on a sensitive and trembling string. It is not for nothing that we are now connecting to this design style, which can be carefully called a 'trend'.
This time we dream of doing it right. Correct the Bauhaus principle. Add emotion to it, focus on the human. Accurate the slogan to "form follows emotion" - and not just functionality. Streamline, make it cheaper, make it accessible, but do not forget to also feel.
In the change, he has created and in his mode of operation, the Bauhaus offers us a glimpse into the unknown. It offers us guidance on how to behave in a world of radical change and uncertainty. He tells us a story about a groundbreaking avant-garde movement that has indeed managed to change the world. And as such, it provides us with hope for a better future.
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SIX BUILDINGS IN AN INTERNATIONAL STYLE MUST-SEE IN TEL AVIV
1. Shomo Yafe House
Many architectural wonders can be found on Bialik Street, the house of Shomo Yafe is one of them. The cubic shape of the building, the snow-white walls with square windows, and even the interior furnishings embody the Bauhaus style. The building has been in excellent condition since 1935.
Architect: Shlomo Gefstein
Address: Bialik 21
2. Hotel Cinema
This is a working boutique hotel that was once one of the first cinemas in Tel Aviv. The cinematic theme of the 1930s remains the leitmotif in its design today: real projectors, cinema chairs, and movie posters adorn the hotel lobby.
Address: Zamenhof 1
3. House thermometer
This house got its name because of the unusual concrete structure, which in the daytime shades the staircase and helps to ventilate it, and in the evening it lets the electric light into the street.
Architect: Yehuda Llolca
Address: Frug 5
4. Kiryati's house
Nothing impressive in appearance, however, according to one famous Israeli architect, this house is close to the perfect embodiment of the Bauhaus style thanks to its symmetry and simplicity.
Address: Ruppin 12-14
5. House on Ayarkon Street
The original building was built in 1935 by the architect Pinchas Bizonski. His project was commissioned by the Reisenfeld family, but since they had no children, they bequeathed the house to the Hebrew University, which used it as a student residence. The building is made in the shape of the letter "H", has a courtyard and luxury apartments with many zeros in the price tag.
Address: HaYarkon 96
6. Tel Aviv Museum
Even though the Tel Aviv Museum was opened in 2011 and is not considered part of the "White City", it is easy to guess all the signs of the international style: white, geometric shapes, small square windows, and a flat roof.
Architect: Preston Scott-Cohen
Address: 27 Shaul Hamelech
Exploring Tel Aviv is fun, the city has so much to offer! when it comes to Bauhaus in Tel Aviv, there are so many buildings in the white city to observe, do you think you can find all of them? rent a private tour guide in Tel Aviv and discover the Bauhaus buildings in the right way.