THE LIST OF THE JEWISH HOLIDAYS
The Jewish calendar is full of different events from Jewish history and every moment is celebrated on different Jewish holidays, I made the ultimate list of Jewish holidays to present you the most important events of Jewish history.
YOM SHIKHRUR VE ATZALA - DAY OF SALVATION AND LIBERATION
Yom Shikhrur ve Atzala - Day of Salvation and Liberation is a Jewish holiday celebrated on May 9, 1945 - Victory Day over Nazi Germany. About 6 million Jews died in World War II. The liberation of Europe from the fascist yoke by the forces of the anti-Hitler coalition and the salvation of the Jews from the hands of the fascist executioners marked the beginning of a new era in the history of the Jewish people - the revival and the creation of their own state in Eretz Israel. According to Jewish chronology, May 9, 1945, fell on 26 Iyar 5705.
HISTORY OF DAY OF SALVATION AND LIBERATION - Day of Salvation and Liberation “As you know, according to Jewish tradition, if a holiday is not determined by the Torah, then it must be associated with Divine intervention. It was May 9, 1945, or 26 Iyar 5705, that became a turning point in Jewish history, thanks to which our people were not only saved from destruction but also found their national home - the State of Israel.
The Almighty did not leave his people and sent salvation. That is why this date should not only be reflected in the Jewish religious calendar, but preserved in it forever - so that our children and grandchildren and their children always know to whom the Jewish people owe their lives. Unfortunately, every year there are fewer and fewer veterans of the Great Patriotic War (may the Almighty grant them 120 years of life!). The day is not far off when they will not be left at all.
And then only on us - the children and grandchildren of those who were liberated by the wars of the Red Army and the Allied Army, the memory of their Great Victory will depend ”. The author of these words is German Zakharyaev, president of the STMEGI Foundation, initiator of the 26th Iyar in the Jewish religious calendar.
Recently, the chief rabbis of Israel and Europe decided to add this date to the Jewish calendar and mark Iyar 26 as the Day of Salvation and Liberation (Yom Shikhrur ve Atzala).
DAY OF SALVATION AND LIBERATION TRADITIONS - After the date of 26 Iyar was entered into the religious Jewish calendar, a special ceremony was established. Three candles are lit: in honor of the Almighty, in honor of the soldiers-liberators, and memory of the dead. Memorial prayers and prayers of gratitude for salvation are heard. The Day of Salvation and Liberation was created to become, along with Passover and Purim, one of the main Jewish holidays, symbolizing victory over enemies and deliverance from mortal danger.
On the day of salvation and liberation, they remember the Jews who died in the fight against fascism, and they thank the Almighty for the fact that the Jewish people were liberated and survived. In Jewish communities around the world, the Day of Salvation and Liberation has been celebrated since 2014; in Russia, it began to be widely celebrated in 2015, in the year of 70 Victory in World War II. According to the Gregorian calendar, the date of the celebration falls on the period from May to June and is updated every year. Day of Rescue and Liberation in 2020 was celebrated on May 20. Like all Jewish holidays, its celebration began the night before sunset on May 19 and lasted until the evening of May 20. This year, Jews from all over the world will hold a common prayer at the Western Wall in Jerusalem online. The chief rabbis from around the world will conduct ceremonies and prayers through the Zoom conference. World Prayer at the Wailing Wall in Jerusalem will take place on May 19 at 18.00 Israel time.
What holiday do Jews spend in a hut for seven days? This Jewish holiday is called Sukkot. It got its name from the word Sukkah, which means a hut, a tent, or a bush. Sukkot On the days of the holiday, it is customary to leave home and live in ritual huts specially built for this, in memory of the people who wandered in the desert for forty years before finding the Promised Land.
Sukkot holiday symbolizes the connection of the Jewish people with their historical past. Sukkot is a holiday filled with the scent of freshly cut greenery, the aromas of myrtle and etrog. The holiday begins on the 15th day of the Jewish month of Tishrei and lasts for 7 days. Tishrei, the seventh month in the Hebrew calendar, usually falls between September and October of the Gregorian calendar. Sukkot in 2020 fell on the dates from October 3 to October 9. Like all Jewish holidays, it began the night before after sunset on October 2 and ran until the evening of October 9, 2020.
The culmination of Sukkot is the eighth day, which is called Shemini Atzeret, which means "stay on the eighth."
THE MEANING OF SUKKOT HOLIDAY - The sons of Israel spent forty years in the Sinai desert after the Exodus from Egypt. In those ancient times, they lived in temporary dwellings of the Sukkah, and they were little worried about the strength of the roof over their heads, for in everything they relied on the mercy of the Almighty.
Having found their land and built strong and reliable dwellings on it, the sons of Israel continue to move for seven days every year under the roof of temporary huts, in fulfillment of the commandment of the Highest. And the commandment is this: “On the fifteenth day of the seventh month (Tishrei) when you are harvesting the fruits of the earth, celebrate the feast of the Almighty for seven days: the first rest on the day and the eighth rest on the eighth day. And take for yourself on the first day the fruit of a beautiful tree (etrog), palm branches and branches of a leafy tree, and river willows, and rejoice before God, your Almighty, seven days. And celebrate this holiday to the Highest seven days a year: this is an eternal charter for your generations; in the seventh month, celebrate it. Live in the sukkah for seven days ... so that your generations may know that I settled the sons of Israel in the sukkah when I brought them out of the land of Egypt ... "
The Jewish holiday of Sukkot falls in the autumn months when the plowing season is over and all the harvest has been collected from the fields, orchards, and vineyards. And what could be more joyful for the farmer than the contemplation of the abundant fruits of his labor? When contemplating such abundance, he can become proud, forgetting about God: “I have achieved all this myself! All this is only thanks to my work and skill! " In his infinite wisdom, the Almighty commanded it was during this period of autumn abundance to move to temporary huts and live in them for seven days. And, being rich, remember poverty, so that human hearts do not become proud, and believe that even in this fragile refuge, God will protect them and send them prosperity, just like many, many years ago. What deep moral wisdom is contained in this commandment. If Passover is a holiday of liberation, Shavuot is the giving of the Torah, then Sukkot is a holiday of joy for the glory of the Highest.
SUKKOT HOLIDAY TRADITIONS - To fulfill the commandment for the holiday of Sukkot, it is necessary to prepare in advance, it is necessary to build a sukkah (hut) and purchase an etrog and a lulav. On the eve of the holiday, special bazaars are organized where they sell lulaves, Etrogues, material for building a sukkah and its decoration. Sukkot To install the sukkah, they choose a beautiful, windless place in the open air: in the yard, on the veranda, in the front garden, on the balcony, and in other places. Sukkah should not be placed in the shade of trees and nothing should hang over it.
To install the walls, you can use any building material, but the roof should be only of vegetables, for this they use spruce branches, branches of palm trees, bamboo, etc. You can also use mats specially made for this as a roof. It is customary to decorate the sukkah whenever possible. For decoration, seven types of fruits are used for which the Land of Israel is famous (wheat, barley, olives, dates, figs, pomegranates, and grapes), paintings depicting the holiday of Sukkot, curtains. Throughout the week of the holiday, the hut becomes the seat of the commandment. You cannot enter it with dirty clothes or bring in soil. The whole week is supposed to live in the sukkah (eat and sleep). It is forbidden to eat outside the hut, to drink outside the hut only water is allowed to quench your thirst.
The fulfillment of the commandment to live in the Sukkah does not apply to women, as well as to the sick, whose health this can harm. Today, few people really live in the Sukkah all seven days, most often the family only dines there and only a few stay overnight. Children are most happy about the holiday of Sukkot because for them it is a real adventure.
YOM HAZMAUT - ISRAEL INDEPENDENCE DAY
Israel's Independence Day is the birth date of the state and the only holiday outside of religion. Annually, approximately 5 Iyar of the Jewish calendar, the day of the proclamation of the state of Israel is celebrated, which is called Yom ha-Atzmaut. Yom Hatzmaut - Israel Independence, Day There is no fixed holiday date.
It falls on the day next to the 5th Iyar in the middle of the week (Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday) and should not fall on Shabbat and the Friday preceding it.
According to the Gregorian calendar, its celebration falls on the period from April to May and is specified every year. Israel's Independence Day in 2020 was celebrated on April 29. Like all Jewish holidays, it's celebration began on the evening of April 28, after sunset.
The fate of modern Israel was decided on Saturday, November 29, 1947. The UN voted on Resolution No. 181 on the creation of 2 independent states in Palestine. Arabs opposed the division of Palestine, and Palestinian Jews dreamed of regaining their own country. The historic decision in favor of partitioning Palestine was taken by a majority vote (33 to 13). On May 14, 1948 (5708 5 Iyar), the first in the history of Israel, Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion, 8 hours before the end of the British mandate, signs the main state document - the Declaration of Independence of Israel, thereby announcing the creation of a new country (Medinat Yisrael ).
The Jews rejoiced, and the Arabs took military action. The soldiers, who did not get stronger after the big war, again had to take up arms and defend the new state. Israel managed to repel the attack, but the fighting continued for fifteen months, during which more than six thousand Israelis were killed. They gave their lives to make the existence of the State of Israel a reality.
The following year, the Knesset issues new law on the 5th day of Iyar, Israel's Independence Day. one day before Israel's independence, Israel has been fighting for its independence from the very beginning, every year not only soldiers die in battles and clashes, but also civilians as a result of terrorist attacks.
Unfortunately, there are a lot of such innocent victims, and every year their lists are inexorably replenished by women, children, old people, and just young people. Therefore, the public holiday is preceded by the mourning day of Yom ha-Zikaron - the Day of Remembrance for those who fell in the wars for Israel's independence and the victims of terror.
The mourning day on the eve of Israel's Independence Day once again makes us understand what price the entire Jewish people had to pay for this very Independence. In the entire history of Israel, 23,816 people died in wars and terrorist attacks, 4166 of them became victims of terrorist attacks.
In the year that has passed since the last Yom ha-Zikaron, the number of those killed has increased by 76 people - 44 died, 37 IDF disabled have died.
CELEBRATION OF THE DAY OF INDEPENDENCE - Israel is probably the only country in the world where immediately after the most mournful day comes the most joyful day. Barely wiping their tears, people gather in the squares, in the central cities such as Tel Aviv - this is the former Kings of Israel Square, thematic performances are arranged. The sky lights up with fireworks in honor of the existence of the Jewish independent state. Israel Independence Day Celebratory fireworks in honor of Israel's Independence Day Festive performances and fireworks in honor of Israel's Independence Day The official ceremony begins in the evening after sunset in the square on Mount Herzl in Jerusalem, where 12 torches are lit in the presence of the Speaker of the Knesset, symbolizing the 12 tribes of Israel. Thus, completing Yom Hazikaron and opening the celebration of Israel's Independence Day.
Yom ha-Atzmaut is the only non-religious holiday in the country when ordinary life flows, public transport runs, people shop, secular institutions, and enterprises work, and the religious population drives cars and lights a fire. Cities, houses, cars are everywhere decorated with national flags. Not only military awards are presented. The prizes are awarded to the field of science and the field of art. Guided tours of military bases, parades, and demonstrations of military equipment.
On a holiday, the country turns into one mega picnic, grouping in the company of relatives, friends, or colleagues. In every courtyard, on lawns and embankments, and in any free place where you can put a grill, vegetables and barbecues are prepared. And in the evening, city streets are transformed into dance floors. In 2020, for the first time in the history of Israel, the holiday was celebrated in a special, quarantine regime. Without mass performances in squares and streets, without parades and demonstrations of military power, without fireworks and picnics. Peace to you, Israel! Let the 12 torches, symbolizing the 12 tribes of Israel, shine with a bright light. And let the words of the prayer "Hallel" for the happiness and prosperity of the country sound gracious.
This is definitely one of the happiest Jewish holidays in the Jewish calendar.